الرئيسية » مقالات » راضي الراضي للكونغرس: المالكي هددني بنفسه ومجموع الفساد المالي في الوزارات 18 مليار دولار

راضي الراضي للكونغرس: المالكي هددني بنفسه ومجموع الفساد المالي في الوزارات 18 مليار دولار

قال راضي حمزة الراضي رئيس هيئة النزاهة السابق في العراق:” لقد نجحنا في التحقيق في اكثر من 3000 قضية للفساد واحالتها الى المحاكم للفصل فيها ، ووفقا لسجلات بلدي ، فإن 241 فقط حالة تم الفصل فيها حتى الآن”.

وأضاف خلال جلسة الاستماع الثانية له قبل أيام أمام الكونغرس الأمريكي :”ان تكلفة الفساد التي كشفت عنها اللجنة حتى الآن عبر جميع الوزارات في العراق ، قُدرت بحوالي 18 مليار دولار وتقف على رأسها وزارة الدفاع حيث بلغ حجم الفساد 5 مليارات دولار، ثم التجارة 3 مليارات، فالكهرباء 3 مليارات، تليها التقل ملياري دولار، فالصحة ملياري دولار تليها الداخلية مليار دولار فالاتصالات مليار دولار فالإسكان مليار دولار ، ثم المالية 500 مليون دولار فالنفط 500 مليون دولار “.

وأكد الراضي أن تلك البيانات لم تستوعب قضايا الفساد جميعها فهناك قضايا كثيرة لم يتم إدراجها لأسباب متعددة منها عدم اكتمال الأدلة، ومنها اختفاء ملفات.وتابع إن التقرير “لا يعكس النطاق الكامل للفساد في مجال النفط ، بما في ذلك قياس الاحتيال ، والسرقة والتهريب. في بلدي توجد مجموعة صغيرة من المحققين ممن لا يملكون القدرة على التحقيق في كل قضايا تهريب النفط. وبالاضافة الى السرقة من قبل الميليشيات وموظفى الحكومة ، فقد تلقيت ادلة على تفشي التهريب بما في ذلك اعادة انشاء طرق التهريب التي تعود الى عهد صدام حسين “.

وأوضح رئيس هيئة النزاهة أنه تم تصنيف قضايا الفساد إلى خمسة أنواع وأنه توصل إلى أن قضايا فساد كبيرة تعود الى 35 من كبار المسؤولين المتهمين.

وحول العقبات الرئيسة التي تعترض عمل الهيئة بيّن راضي الراضي أن العقبة الأولى هي ” العنف والترهيب والهجمات الشخصية”، حيث أنه ” منذ انشاء لجنة النزاهه العامة ، تعرض اكثر من 31 موظفا للاغتيال وكذلك لا يقل عن 12 فرد من افراد عوائلهم ” وتابع الراضي:” كان موظفو مكتبي واقاربهم عرضة للخطف أو الاحتجاز او التعذيب قبل قتلهم.و العديد من هؤلاء الاشخاص كانوا قد تعرضوا الى اطلاقات نارية من مسافه قريبة”.

وقدم الراضي أمام الكونكرس عرضا موجزا لأشخاص قتلوا أو تعرضوا للتهديد فقد أكد أن ” الموظف محمد عبد كان قد اطلق عليه النار في الشارع مع ابنائه وزوجته الحامل،و رئيس جهاز الامن في الهيئة مرارا تعرض للتهديد بالقتل ، وكان والده مؤخرا قد خُطف وقتل بسبب آرائه وبسبب عمل ابنه في لجنة النزاهة العامة. وقد عثر على جثته معلقة بخطاف اللحوم وكذلك احد الموظفين الذين يؤدون واجبات كتابية كان في ضمن حماية أمن الموظفين ، ولكن والده خُطف بسبب عمل ابنه في اللجنة ايضا. هذا الموظف الذي كان والده البالغ من العمر 80 عاما ، وجدت جثته مملوءة بالثقوب من الدريل الذي استخدم لتعذيبه قبل القتل ورئيس فرع النزاهة في الموصل قتل على يد مهاجم انتحاري في مكتبه” وتابع الراضي:” وقبل اسبوعين أحد زملائي المحامين اصيب بطلق ناري في الرقبة وفي صدره والآن يقاتل من اجل حياته و يوم الجمعة عثرنا على جثة احد المحققين فى بغداد في مكان اتلاف النفايات. هذه مجرد أمثلة قليلة ، وهناك الكثير من التهديدات التي وجهت الى الموظفين التابعين لي ، ولي ولأسرتي ايضا، وشخصيا ، على سبيل المثال ، تعرضت عائلتي مرارا للهجوم بقذائف الهاون، وقد دمرت كل شيء من حولي. وقد تلقيت رصاصة من قناص اثناء خروجي من المكتب” .

وتحدث القاضي راضي حمزة الراضي عن طبيعة عمل الهيئة في ظل حكومة المالكي قائلا:” رئيس الوزراء وحكومته رفضوا الاعتراف باستقلال لجنة النزاهة العامة ، رغم ان الدستور العراقي ينص على استقلال اللجنة … المسؤولون والوكالات في الحكومة العراقية أرسلوا الينا رسائل رسمية تمنعنا من إتخاذ أي اجراء ضد الرئاسة ، ومجلس الوزراء السابقين والوزراء الحاليين”.
وكشف الراضي مسألة في غاية الخطورة حين أعلن أن ” هناك العديد من حالات الفساد التي تم اغلاقها من قبل الوزراء ورئيس الوزراء ويقدر قيمتها بمئة بليون دينار عراقي”.

وأضاف :” كثير من القضاة في العراق يعيشون في خوف من التعذيب والاغتيال لانفسهم وافراد اسرهم اذا كانوا يشاركون في قرارات الفصل في القضايا التي تعود الى كبار المسؤولين الحكوميين”.

ويعزو الراضي سبب ذلك إلى أن :” السلطة التنفيذية ، والتشريعية والقضائية وغيرها من فروع الحكومة العراقية لم تعمل كما هو مطلوب من اجل تعزيز سيادة القانون ومكافحة الفساد في العراق. السلطة التنفيذية في كثير من الاحيان تنشط في حمايه الموظفين الفاسدين ومحاولة للقضاء او السيطرة على اللجنة. بينما لم تنقح السلطة التشريعية قوانين مكافحة الفساد، كما ان السلطة القضائية في كثير من الأحيان تستسلم للضغوط ولم تفصل في قضايا الفساد”.
وأكد الراضي أنه :” من المستحيل على لجنة النزاهة العامة ان تحقق في قضايا الفساد في مجال النفط بامان وكفاية خاصة التي فيها ميليشيات من السنة والشيعة يقومون بالسيطرة على عداد مقياس النفط ، ونقل وتوزيع النفط العراقي. وقد ادى هذا الى ان وزارة النفط تميل نحو تمويل الارهاب من خلال هذه الميليشيات”.

وبينما كان يفترض أن تكون قوى الأمن حامية ومساندة لعمل الهيئة قال الراضي:”التحقيق في قوات الامن من العراق صعب جدا … الاشخاص الذين كانوا صادقين والمخلصين وتحت رئاستي في لجنة النزاهة العامة بحاجة الى الحماية والدعم واولئك الذين تسللوا الى اللجنة لاسباب سياسية طائفية لا بد من استبدالهم بتعيين الناس الذين هم حقا ملتزمون بمهمتهم والمبدأ التوجيهي الا وهو “لا شيء فوق القانون. واذا لم يحدث ذلك ، اخشى ان تكون اللجنة نفسها يمكن ان تُستخدم كاداة من ادوات القهر وكذلك اداة للافساد والى المزيد من الفساد ، والطائفية وغير الشرعية عن طريق توطيد السلطة المستهدفة للتطهير من الاعداء السياسيين”.

وأكد الراضي في معرض حديثه أمام الكونغرس:”ان حكومة العراق ستفشل وكذلك الشعب الامريكى ، سيستمر في المعانات اذا بقيت الميليشيات مسيطرة على أجزاء من الحكومة بما في ذلك قوات الأمن ، والتي ليست تحت السيطرة… الفساد والطائفيه قد يؤدي الى تآكل عمل الامريكان والشعب العراقي لبناء مستقبل افضل للعراق والمنطقة”.

ويروي الراضي قصة سفره إلى الولايات المتحدة لغرض التدريب:” انا واحد من الموظفين الوافدين من لجنة النزاهة العامة للجمهورية العراقية ، جئنا من العراق الى الولايات المتحدة في 24 آب / اغسطس ، 2007 ، بصورة شرعية ولاجل التدريب مع وزارة العدل الامريكية و اثناء زيارتنا وجهت لي ولعائلتي تهديدات تصاعدت الى اعلى مستوى ، جنبا الى جنب مع الضغط الهائل خلال السنتين الاخيرتين من اعلى المستويات في الحكومة العراقية ، ومما يدعو للاسف وبشكل مؤلم تسبب لي لالتماس الحمايه المناسبه من الحكومة الامريكية لعائلتي”… ان سلامة عائلتي معرضة للخطر في العراق بسبب عملي ، والآن كلماتي اليكم في هذا اليوم ، ويمكن ان تضيف إلي خطر آخر”.
وتابع الراضي:”قبل مثولي للشهادة امام بيت الولايات المتحدة في 4 تشرين الاول / اكتوبر ، 2007 ، رئيس الوزراء العراقي هددني بنفسه …وقيل لي ان الوكالة السابقة قد وجهت جهودها الى مجرد متابعة التهم الموجهة لى ولموظفيي وتجاهل الفساد فى الحكومة العراقية”.

وختم الراضي تقريره بالقول:” الموظفون واسرهم ، وانا وعائلتي نعرف جيدا ان الديمقراطيه والعدالة لا تشترى بدون ثمن”.

جلسة الاستماع باللغة الانكليزية


TESTIMONY OF JUDGE RADHI HAMZA al-RADHI

Commissioner, Commission on Public Integrity, Republic of Iraq

Hearing on the Effectiveness of U.S. Efforts to Combat Corruption,

Waste, Fraud and Abuse in Iraq, March 11, 2008

Senate Committee on Appropriations

Corruption in the Iraqi Government and its Costs

To Our Distinguished Chairman and Respected Members of the United States

Senate, Ladies and Gentlemen:

GREETINGS

I am Judge Radhi Hamza al-Radhi, former Commissioner of the Commission on

Public Integrity (“CPI”), Republic of Iraq. It is an honor to be here among you

today to discuss with you the most important problems facing Iraq after the recent

change. The change which led the United States and its allies in Iraq to eliminate

the highest dictatorship in the world, that of Saddam Hussein. The dictatorship he

built on the corpses, money and the suffering of Iraqis. I want to thank the

American people who have sacrificed their life and money in order to achieve

noble goals that are worthy of respect. The goal for Iraqi’s rights, for the ending of

their suffering and for the spread of democracy throughout Iraq, which is the key

to progress and growth. Thank-you thousands of times to everyone who

participated and sacrificed for these noble goals.

REASONS FOR AN IRAQI COMMISSION ON PUBLIC INTEGRITY

Iraq is a rich country; however its infrastructure is essentially nonexistent

and much work needs to be done.

Building democracy requires transparency from the Government in order

for that government to manage socio-economic matters.

The Iraqi people are smart and hard working and are looking for progress.

For that they deserve a fair and honest government.

Transparency and the presence of an effective Commission on Public

Integrity as well as The Board of Supreme Audit and the Inspectors General

will encourage foreign investment in Iraq.

2

The existence of these bodies dedicated to public oversight, especially CPI,

would protect funds, and these funds would be devoted to public services

for Iraqi people, leading to welfare and prosperity for them. This in turn

would bring internal stability and would have positive impacts on regional

and international stability.

The legal authorities for these anticorruption organizations are derived from

the Coalition of Provisional Authorities orders including Order No.(55)

establishing the Commission on Public Integrity, Order No.(57)

establishing the office of Inspector General in each ministry and Order No.

(77) Continuing the Board of Supreme Audit which was established in

1927.

APPOINTMENT AS COMMISSIONER

For these important reasons Iraq established the Commission on Public Integrity.

I was honored to be named the Commissioner of CPI. The Iraqi Judicial Council

selected three candidates for this position. Ambassador Bremer chose me to lead

CPI because I graduated from the Judicial Institute in 1979 and I have 39 years of

experience in legal affairs. Additionally, I was director of funds for Iraqi orphans

during the Iraq-Iran war. While I consider myself an honest technocrat and judge,



some have speculated that other credentials included the fact that I am Shia and

that I was jailed and tortured by Saddam Hussein for refusing to join the Baath

Party. According to the law, future commissioners will be selected from three

candidates chosen from the Higher Juridical Council. The Prime Minister must

pick one of these candidates and the Parliament must confirm this candidate. A

Commissioner can only be fired for cause by a two thirds vote of the Parliament.

Therefore the responsibility of this power and the need for integrity in this office is

great.

OPERATION OF CPI

This Commission on Public Integrity started in June 2004. American experts have

had a great impact in providing advice and guidance to this magnificent

Commission. The American experts helped us by establishing training courses

from day one until now. They have spent a great amount time and of money to

hold this Commission accountable to disseminate and promote the ethics of

integrity for my country.

The functioning of CPI had been outstanding even under very difficult

circumstances. It was able to build several important departments or directorates

within 3 years, such as:

3

The Directorate General of Prevention and Transparency, which prepared a

Code of Conduct for all Iraqi government employees and has also prepared

a Financial Disclosure program to disclose the financial interests of senior

employees such as the general director and superior officers.

The Directorate General for Non-Governmental Organization relations,

which contacted most NGOs in Iraq in order to motivate them to achieve

their objectives and solve their problems honestly. Some of these

organizations have played a significant role in my country to develop

morals and contribute to the reconstruction of Iraq and also to put pressure

on the Government to provide better services to the Iraqi people.

The Directorate General for Education, which worked to educate

government employees on their duties and responsibilities, including

promoting the Code of Conduct, educating Iraqi public on their rights and

responsibilities as well as promoting the Hotline. In conjunction with the

Ministry of Education, it worked to develop a curriculum for Iraqi school

children to promote public service and ethics. It had a public affairs

department to work with international and domestic news media

organizations.

In addition, the Directorate General for Investigations investigated corruption in

government departments and ministries.

RESULTS

During these three years, there have been many results produced for an

organization so young and new to my country. I will briefly expand on many of

the areas above such as our work with educating the government ministries in the

Code of Conduct, work on Financial Disclosure, the establishment of an

INTERPOL liaison office, printing and distribution of educational materials for

children, a Civil Service Reform conference and NGO conference, Investigation

Department has expanded with the establishment of a Forensics Division, an

Investigative Research Division, a Witness Protection Program and facilities, the

establishment of a Statistics Division in the Administration Department which

promulgates annual reports to the Iraqi government and the Iraqi people on the

activities of CPI, the initial establishment of a Public Integrity and Ethics Institute

to professionalize the civil service and provide training for CPI, the Board of

Supreme Audit and the Inspectors General, the establishment of an anticorruption

Hotline to receive calls from Iraqi citizens for the first time in Iraq’s history, the

printing and distribution Hotline promotional materials and other CPI materials.

4

For the first time, perhaps in Middle East history, a government minister was

arrested, in accordance with the Rule of Law in a non-political, non-sectarian

manner, on corruption charges. This case came early in our investigation process,

before the full force of opposition to CPI was organized. Unfortunately, of the

3,000 corruption cases we successfully investigated and forwarded to the courts

for adjudication, according to my records, only 241 cases to date were adjudicated

with guilty sentences ranging between six months and one hundred and twenty

years. However, the cost of corruption that my Commission has uncovered so far

across all ministries in Iraq has been estimated to be as high as $18 billion.

Broken down by Iraqi government ministry, that $18 billion was distributed in this

way:

MINISTRY TOTAL MONEY

Defense $5,000,000,000

Trade $3,000,000,000

Electricity $3,000,000,000

Transportation $2,000,000,000

Health $2,000,000,000

Interior $1,000,000,000

Communications $1,000,000,000

Housing $1,000,000,000

Finance $ 500,000,000

Oil $ 500,000,000

This data represents my estimate based only on cases before the courts as of late

2007. It does not break the numbers down by US tax dollars or Iraqi dinar. While

US tax dollars may be of greater interest to this Committee, such a break down is

very hard for me to determine. It also does not distinguish between degree of

crime such as funds stolen and funds poorly spent due to mismanagement. It does

not represent the cases that never made it to the courts or cases dismissed at the

court, some of which were dismissed after judges were threatened or assassinated.

In particular, it does not reflect the full extent of oil corruption, including metering

fraud, theft, and smuggling. My small group of heroic investigators did not have

the capacity to investigate all of the oil smuggling. In addition to theft by militias

and government employees, I had received evidence of widespread smuggling

including the reestablishment of the smuggling routes that Saddam Hussein’s

regime used to circumvent United Nations resolutions including the Oil for Food

Program.

In addition, based on the end of year 2005 data available to me, I have attached for

the Committee six graphs detailing how corruption was reported, our CPI caseload

by ministry, the percentage of corruption cases by ministry, the disposition of

5

cases, the corruption cases by kind and the demographics of the top 35 senior

indicted officials.

GUIDING PRINCIPLE

I have led my life governed by these few words, “Law is above all, no one is

above the law.” This guiding principle applies to all government departments and

ministries neutrally, fully and without regard to sect, ethnicity, party affiliation,

tribe or religion.

MAIN OBSTACLES

The main obstacles to our work are:

Violence, intimidation and personal attacks. Since the establishment of the

Commission of Public Integrity, more than 31 employees have been

assassinated as well as at least an additional 12 family members. In a

number of cases, my staff and their relatives have been kidnapped or

detained and tortured prior to being killed. Many of these people were

gunned down at close range. This includes my staff member Mohanned

Abd Salif who was gunned down on the street with his seven month

pregnant wife. My Security Chief on my staff was repeatedly threatened

with death, and his father was recently kidnapped and killed because of his

son’s work at CPI. His body was found hung from a meat hook. One of

my staff members who performed clerical duties was protected by my

security staff, but his father was kidnapped because his son worked at CPI.

This staff member’s father was 80 years old. When his dead body was

found, a power drill had been used to drill his body with holes. My head of

our Mosul branch was killed by a suicide bomber in his office. Two weeks

ago one of my attorneys was shot in the neck and in the chest, and is now

fighting for his life. Just Friday the body of one of my investigators was

found in a Baghdad trash dump. These are just a few examples, there are

many more which were directed to my staff, me and our families.

Personally, for example, my family’s home has been repeatedly attacked by

missiles, virtually destroying all around me. I have had a sniper bullet

striking near me as I was outside my office. We know the corrupt will stop

at nothing. They are so corrupt that they will attack their accusers and their

families with both guns and meat hooks as well as counter charges of

corruption. So that the accusers become the accused in a deadly game that

all of us have witnessed.

6

The Prime Minister and his government have refused to recognize the

independence of the Commission on Public Integrity, even though the Iraqi

Constitution sets forth the independence of CPI in point No. 102,103.

The interference of the Iraqi Government in Commission matters; officials

and agencies in the Iraqi Government sent us formal letters forbidding us to

take any action against the presidency, council of ministries and former and

current ministers.

The use of Article 136, Section B of the Criminal Procedures Law No. 23

of 1971, which prevented us from transmitting many corrupt employees’

cases to court until we received permission from the minister of the agency

we were investigating. This presented obvious problems. The same thing

applied to corrupt ministers: We could not take any action until we could

get the permission of the Prime Minister. Based on that, many corruption

cases have been closed by the ministers and the Prime Minister, at an

estimated worth of one hundred billion Iraqi dinar. In addition to the

obstacles of Article 136, there was pressure put on the judiciary not to

prosecute cases on behalf of individuals. Many of Iraq’s judges live in fear

of torture and assassination of themselves and their family members if they

adjudicate cases of senior government officials.

The Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of the Iraqi Government

did not work as required to promote the Rule of Law and fight corruption in

Iraq. The executive branch often protected corrupt employees and actively

attempted to eradicate or control the Commission. The legislative branch

did not revise the anticorruption laws. The judiciary branch often

succumbed to pressure and did not adjudicate corruption cases.

The government did not appoint leaders, particularly ministers and

Inspectors General that would fight corruption within ministries.

In order to promote sectarian agendas, professional technocrats who were

qualified to perform vital government services and administration were not

appointed.

Importantly, it has been impossible for the Commission on Public Integrity

to safely and adequately investigate oil corruption where Sunni and Shia

militias have control of the metering, transport and distribution of Iraqi oil.

This has resulted in the Ministry of Oil effectively financing terrorism

through these militias.

7

Additionally, my small group of investigators investigated the largest

number of cases in the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Interior. As

you might imagine, investigating the security forces of Iraq is very difficult,

but necessary for an Iraqi future of transparency and the Rule of Law.

THE FUTURE

As the committee can appreciate, this is not an easy situation to resolve and it will

not be resolved quickly or completely. Obviously the Government of Iraq, with

the help of the US government, needs to resolve the specific obstacles that I have

listed above.

Further, the people who were dedicated and honest under my tenure at the

Commission on Public Integrity need to be protected and supported and those who

infiltrated the Commission for sectarian political reasons must be re-staffed with

people who are truly committed to its mission and its guiding principle that “No

one is above the law.” If this does not happen, I am afraid that the Commission

itself can be used as a tool of oppression as well as a tool of the corrupt to further

corruption, sectarianism and an illegal consolidation of power through targeted

purges of political enemies.

Finally, the people of Iraq must see advances by the Iraqi Government on the

political level, on economic reconstruction, on basic services, amenities and

infrastructure, and on the rule of law. The Government of Iraq will fail and the

Iraqi and American people will continue to suffer if the militias and militia

controlled parts of the Iraqi government, including the security forces, are not

brought under control. Sectarian corruption has eroded the work of the American

and Iraqi people to build a better future for Iraq and the region.

CONCLUSION

Let me share with you my situation — at the least to the extent I am able right now.

I and a staff delegation from the Commission on Public Integrity of the Republic

of Iraq came to the United States on August 24, 2007, for forensics and evidence

training with the US Department of Justice. During our visit, threats against me

and my family in Iraq escalated to a point where, together with the immense

pressure of the last two years from the highest levels of the Iraqi Government,

regretfully and painfully caused me to seek appropriate US Government protection

for my family. My family’s safety became paramount.

My case for asylum was filed October 3, 2007, and is currently pending. Just as

my family’s safety was at risk in Iraq because of my work, now my words,

including my words to you today, may add to my risk. Following my testimony

8

before the United States House on October 4, 2007, the Iraqi Prime Minister

himself threatened me with prosecution. Further, I am told that my former agency

now has been directed to simply pursue charges against me and my staff and

ignore the corruption in the Iraqi Government.

My staff and their families, I and my family, know too well that honesty,

democracy and justice are not purchased without a price. While those ideals are

praised loudly, the people who fight for them daily — the law enforcers, the anticorruption

fighters, the whistleblowers and their advocates — are too often met

with violence, persecution, false allegations, and indifference. I have the greatest

respect for the work, courage and sacrifice that the American people have made on

behalf of Iraq. I come before you with faith and confidence that my service to my

country and to all like you who stand against corruption will not cause any

retaliation in the United States. This is not the case in Iraq today, where I and my

Commission have been politically, legally, financially and physically attacked.

Now, here in America, without protection or plan, I am but a feather in the wind. I

am a judge and a crime fighter. I don’t know politics. I worked my life for my

country. I love and I very much miss my country, but if I return, I will be killed. I

look forward to the day when my status is secure and my family and I can begin to

rebuild our life.

I see my work in uncovering billions of dollars of corruption as promoting

democracy, public integrity and the rule of law in Iraq and look forward to

working with all who will aid in this effort.

Thank you for your attention and patience, and please feel free to ask any

questions.

Judge Radhi Hamza al-Radhi

Chairman of the Integrity Commission in Iraq