Governorate Geography

Duhok governorate lies in the far north-west of Iraq and forms the western governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. It has a strategic location since it is considered to be a point of joint among three parts of Kurdistan (Syria- Turkey- Iraq).

The governorate lies in the portable area, which means between the wavy area and high mountainous area, the general shape of the governorate is an irregular rectangle and the longitude line almost divides it in (34) degree to the east into two halves and passes in the center of the governorate. It lies between the two lines of latitude (36. 40) and (37. 20) degree to the north, so it situates to the north of Equator in the northern Equinoctial area.

Duhok governorate is considered to be one of the most significant and important governorates specially in historical and geographical sides. The remains and carves found in its hills and caves show its significance in addition to its special geographical location which situates on the boundary of two states, beside there is a strategic international road passing across Duhok city which connects Iraqi Kurdistan with Turkey and the external wide world, and also there is a passing petrol tube which passes from Kirkuk to Turkey in its northern-western angle.

Duhok governorate is known by its various topogarphy consisting of very high, rough and complex mountains which form the political border with the republic of Turkey beside the extended plains enriched with agricultural resources which form the southern area of the governorate, its area is about (1075) . And because of non-existance of accurate records at the present time therefore the Directorate of Counting and Registration depended on the old records and added the relaible rate of increasing in the population to them. The governorate is divided managerially into the following territories :

1- Duhok territory
2- Semeal territory
3- Zakho territory
4- Amedeye territory
5- Sheikhan territory
6- Akri territory

lley, to the north of the city there is the White mountain and to the south there is the great Dahkan (Shindokha) mountain, two small rivers flow in the city the first is called Duhok river which gushes from the north near Khaziava village and flows to the south, an irrigation daw was built on it in Duhok narrow –

Duhok Territory

The center is Duhok city which is the center of the governorate at the same time. It lies in an extended and wide vapassage (Geli Duhok) in 1990. The second tributary is smaller than the first one called Hishkarow river which gushes from the north- eastern near Barebuhar village and flows to the south- western, both rivers meet in the south- west of the city. The water of both rivers is used for watering the fruit farms spread on their banks.

The existed remains close to the city show that the city has a significant location from the dawn (starting) of history to the present time. Duhok is an important historical city because of its startegic position between narrow passages (Geli Duhok, Kashafer) which lead to (Dargala Sheikha) narrow passage in which roads and paths were passed by and connected between the Assyrian state in Ninava and the kingdoms of Ouraratow, Kutians and Meetanians.

Hartman the historian thinks that it was known as (Jahok) in the reign of Bassious and there is another opinion says that the word Duhok consists of two syllables (Dih) means the village and (Ok) means or a sign of small things, so it means (the small village) and there is a third opinion which we support it more than the rest, says that the word (Duhok) contains two words (Du) means (two) in Kurdish language and (Hok) means (lump), so they mean (two lumps) as a sign of receiving taxes because some historians and story- tellers said that the prince of Duhok city (Ak- Shindow) in the reign of Nouzi Kingdom was taking two lumps from the baskets as a tax from the passing caravans which carried wheat and barley. The words(Geri Bassi) are another clue to show that the third opinion is true, (Geri Bassi) was the position used as a check point and this point lies in the entrance of Duhok narrow passage.

Duhok city joined to Badinan Emirate in the reign of Sultan (Hassan Beck Bin AL- Emir Saifadeen) who died in (940H.), its castle witnessed murdering one of the princes of Badinan Emirate (Qubad Beak Bin Sultan Hussein Wali) who ruled from (981 H.) to (989 H.), Duhok city remained under the control of the Emirate until its collapse in (1842 AC.) then it was joined to Mosul Brigade and after that Duhok territory was formed in (1290 H.)(1873 AC). When Mosul Brigade was collapsed by British armies and after the first world war, the management of Duhok territory was given to an Iraqi official called (Ahmed Azawi) he was the chief of the police in the territory and became the assistant of the political ruler. Then Sir line was appointed as the political ruler of Duhok territory untill the foundation of Iraqi goverment, so (Fatah beck) was appointed to be the Mayor of the territory and started in 1st of April, 1922. In 27th of May, 1969 Duhok governorate was formed and the city became the center of the governorate.

Duhok city is famous of having many fruit fields and celebrated grapes but in the recent years and according to Baath policy seeking to deprive the Kurdish citizen from his land, therefore the government registered the lands and fields in the name of Duhok municipality then changed them into residential areas, so nothing left except the fields on the banks of both rivers which give alot of resources and income to the citizens who depend on agriculture to earn their living. The city is extended constructively from its southern, western and eastern sides after the emigration processes from villages and country- sides by AL- Ba`ath regime, therefore a lot of them refuged inside the city and made its parts public residential guarters and after the public uprising the commercial movement was flourished and it became an important trade center in Kurdistan Region. The city is surrounded by mountains from three directions, the White mountain in the north, Shindokha mountain in the south and Mamseen mountain in the east while in the western direction, the city is opened to Sumeal agricultural plain.

There are many ancient places in the city and its sides which transfer the life and culture of our grand- fathers, we can say it is a sort of muzeum contains a lot of locations, statues and carved pictures in its caves in addition to the remained ancient tombs spread in its lands to the present time which tell the story of the generations and periods the city passed by for instance:

1-Duhok Castle

The castle was in the location which is occupied now by Post and Communications Office. It was mentioned in the reign of Sultan Hassan Beck when Duhok city joined Badinan Emirate and also happend that one of the princes was killed in the castle, last one who mentioned it was the French traveller (Nedea) who passed the city in (1897) and described it as an ancient castle deserted by the prince and started to build a new castle and still there is a wall of the castle overlooking the river seen by every body.

2-Chewar Stoon Settlement (cave)

The settlement lies in the eastern side from Duhok narrow passage (Geli Duhok). The most important evidence which assures that it was an ancient settlement is the existance of the wall in the western side of it, also the existance of earthenware and stony bases for residential buildings and tombs. It is certain that the settlement passed several ancient civilisational periods and the joint relation ship between the temple and the settlement is the existance of five torches (Hawen) spread on the road which leads to the main temple through a tunnel its length is about (11m), its width is about (4M) and its height is about (3M).

While the main temple which is known as (Chewar Stoon Cave) because of the existance of four columns in it, one of them remained to the present time, each stony column is lain in the corner of a stony sequare shaped bench the length of its side is about (4.80M) and centeralizes the temple. The whole temple is carved in the rock. Before reaching the gate of the temple, the symbols of five gods carved on the rock are noticed and they are symbols of (god of age), Otto (god of moon), (god of sun), (Mitra god), (Ishtar) and (Zirwan) and these gods symbolize to (Zaradishta) religion after the diversion from (Zaradishta) religion and they were worshiping the sun and the moon and they prefered them among the rest of gods.

3-Malathaya Hill (Malta Hill)

It is a great archaeological hill, lies in the west of Duhok city in about (7KM) and on the main road which connects Duhok city to Mosul and Zakho, the Assyrian earthenware is spread on its surface, it is thought that it was (Malitay) the Assyrian city which means the entrance or the path, it is also believed that it was a military castle of great and startegic importance in the Assyrian reign.

4-Halamata Cave

It lies on the foot of (Shindokha) mountian in front of Gavarik village to the south west of Duhok city. These remains consist of four carved images in the form of similar scenes, each image contains a procession of seven gods riding on sacred animals and the king stands in front of it and another person behind him. These gods represent (Ashur, Anilil, Seen, Sun, Ishtar and Adid) and possibly it represents a remembrance of a military triumph.

In 26th of October, 1991 the Interior Ministry of Iraqi regime issued a law numbered (594) to pull out the official s and establishments from the governorare but no- one carried that order out and the offices continued in their work and to give services to the citizens under the supervision of Kurdistan Forehead until the selection of the parliament in 19th of May, 1992 and the formation of Kurdistan Region Government in 4th of July, 1992. Then a new governer was appointed for the governorate he started his duties in 10th of September, 1992.

Duhok city is the center of the governorate and the territory. The territory area is about (107) sqkm. It contains (7) villages and they are (Upper Malta, Lower Malta, Gavarik, Shindokha, Shakheki, Baroshki and Nizarki) and these villages became quarters of the city.

Duhok territoy consists of two districts and they are Zawita district and Doski district.

1-Zawita District

Its center is the Lower Zawita which is far from the territory in about (16) KM and its area is about (420) sqkm. It contains (59) villages all of them were destroyed before and during Anfal operations except the center of the district and the two enforced collective towns (Kori Gavana) and (Bakira). The center of the district situates on the main road which joins the center of district to Amedeye territory.

Zawita town is considered one of the beautiful resorts in Duhok governorate, the highest degree of temperature in Zawita is (36) C in summer. It is well- known of elms forests in which threre are extended areas of shade therefore king Feysal the second chose a spot among these forests and constructed a house for resting and touring. The people of Duhok city make this area as their recreational ground or park all the seasons of the year.

The word Zawita in Kurdish langugge is given to places where snow falls heavily in the winter season meaning that it is close to the word fridge (cool box).

The district is famous of dense forests and excellent pasture lands for breeding the cattle.

The citizens of the district depend on winter agriculture to earn their living such as wheat, barley, lentils, chick- peas and others by exploiting the plain areas such as (Maman) plain and (Badi) knoll. They also take care of growing the fileds of grapes, peaches and sumach in addition to summer agriculture such as rice, tomatoes, tobacco, peas, beans and vegetables, and growing fruitful trees like peaches,apricots, walnuts and (Tayfi) grapes in which villages such as (Bari Buhar, Khaziava, Binarink, Emink and others are well- known in growing such fruitful trees getting benefit from the water of springs which are spread on their parts in addition to the water of the following small rivers:

1-Zawita- Kora- Rashanki- Benarink- Bedeel- Gomill.

2-Bagera- Kora- Rashanki- Benarink- Bedeel- Gomill.

3-Kizoo- Peda- Bedeel- Gomill.

4-Khaziava- linava- Garmava- Duhok Dam- Duhok- Tigris.

5-Beri Buhar- Beseri- Nazarki- Duhok- Tigris.

The most important mountain in the district is (Kamaka mountain which form the nothern and western border for the district and (Bessi, Sepi-reze, Mamseen, Zawita mountains, Kantara, Zorwa) and other heights which forms the majority of the area of the district distinguished by roughness and complexity.

There are many archaeolgical places in the district like caves, hills and remains. Duhok Archaeology Office recorded (24) archaeological locations, the most important ones are: Badi archaeological palace (destroyed during Anfal operations), Mamyan castle on Kamaka mountain, Beseri caves, Eteet, Koradeer, Piromara mountain, Bakhornif mountain, (Rash) the black cave in Kizoo, other places.

There are many suitable places to be resort in the district, the visitors will come regulary to them in summer days for rest and tourism if the hands of reform and reconstrntion reached them such as (Birgeen, Bablow, Kizoo, Merdeenk, Stokorik) and other villages.

After the uprising and the formation of the Kurdistan Region Government, the hands of building and reconstrnction reached the district and the majority of its villages were reconstructed in addition to water projects, building (schools, health centers, mosques).

2- Doski District

The center is Mangish town and far from territory center in about (30) KM. Its area is about (454) sqkm and contains (63) villages all of them were destroyed except the district center and Hogava village. The district joins the governorate center by a paved road branches from the north of Zawita narrow passage to the north- western passing in the middle of Doski area.

The word Mangish has several meanings such as:

It is said that one of the disciples called (prophet Tom) had passed this area when he travelled to India and (Tom) was the one who touched the Christ to believe his resurrection, the process is called (Man- Kash) in Assyrian language therefore the area is named according to this process. The second opinion says that it came from the word (Mikosh) which means Magi and the evidence to prove that is the places of worshiping the God according to Zaradishta religion principles in them and after the spreading of christianty religion among the people of the area, the temple was changed into a church.

The district is well- known of having excellent pasture lands and dense forests, the citizens depend on winter season agiculture such as wheat, barley, lentils and chick- peas, getting benefit from the flat and plain lands and knolls like (Deragizhnik) plain and (Telakorow) knoll and other flat and even lands spread in all parts of the district beside the farms of seasonal grapes and fruitful trees like nuts, figs, pears, sumach and fruit fields like such as peaches, apricots, apples and quinces. They also practise summer season argriculture like, tomatoes, rice, peas, beans, tobacco, onions, garlic and others getting benefit from the water of springs spread in villages and valleys beside the following small rivers:

1-Derk- Shamrakh- Sadi- Shawrik- Navdara- Chiran- Ashank- Khabir.

2-Mangish- Dulia- Kanisark- Geli Karam- Navdara- Chiran- Ashank- Khabir.

In addition to Khabir river which forms the nothern- western border of the district, it is benefited from its eastern bank in a dense way for agriculture and also from the water and the bank of western Sepna tributary which forms the nothern border of the district. The citizens take care of breeding the cattle and the poultry.

The most important mountain in the district is the series of Kamaka mountain which extends from the east to the west till it meets with the White mountain Birgeen village which is erected to the south of the district in addition to the kovili heights, Beroski and Zewka- Abu.

Remains, hills, castles and archaeological cities are found in the district, Duhok Archaeology Office recorded (36) archaeological location such as (Adid Nirari) statue in Dergla sheikha, Geripete, Deragizhnik remains, Besefike, Derk, Babukheke, Gelnaseke and others beside the precious scripts in Mangish church their reign belonged to (1574).

There are many suitable places to be beautiful resorts like Gelnaseke, Dukhorik, Besheenk and others.

After the sacred uprising and the formation of Kurdistan Region Government, the governmental offices with NGOs became proactive to reconstruct the majority of villages belonging to the district and to build schools, health centers and mosques in addition to the water projects in the district.

Sumeal Territory

Semeal town lies to the west of governorate center in the middle of fertile and plain lands, it is far from Duhok city in about (16) km and situates on the international road which leads to Zakho.

It is said that its name consists of two syllables (Se) means three in Kurdish language and (Mal) means house together it means (the three houses). There is another opinion says its name comes from (Se) means three and (Mil) means mound so together it becomes (the three mounds) by all means it is an ancient town and what proves that is the great hill which centeralizes the town. On the hill, there was the palace of (Azedeans) nobleman, he was (Namir Agha Denani). In August, 1933 a massacre happened to the Assyrian people by the Iraqi army.

Its lands are distinguished by the fertility of their soil and considered to be the main source of producing cereal in the governorate specially winter season crops like wheat, barley, lentils, chick- peas and beans in addition to summer season crops like tomatoes, rice, vegetables, sun- seed flowers, millons and water millons beside the fruit fields such as peaches, apples, pears, pomegranates and others getting benefit from irrigation wells spread all over the parts of the area, also they get benefit from the water of Duhok river passes from the west of the territory and flows to Mosul dam lake. Some of the citizens work in breeding the cattle which are considered the basic source of their living, on the other hand, many citizens work in commerce getting benefit from the international road which passes by the territory. Since the territory lands are plain therefore the mountains form its northern border and divides it from the mountainous areas. The Dulob heights extend to the south of the territory. Duhok Archaeology Office recorded (34) archaeological locations, they are: 1-Semeal hill 2-Busarya 3-Kashafir 4-Mam Shivan and others.

The territory area is about (306) sqkm and contains (30) villages in addition to two districts, they are: 1-Faida district 2-Selevani district

Faidi District

The center is Faida town, it lies to the south of the governorate center and on the western edge of the little Dahkan mountain and on a paved road leads to Mosul, at the present time, it is under the control of Iraqi regime authority. Its area is about (281) sqkm and contains (32) villages all of them were destroyed before and during AI- Anfal operations of bad reputation. The majority of the citizens of the Zetik plain villages which lies to the north west of the district center were gathered in Shariya collective town in addition to displace and emigrate the rest of villages by force excusing that they were too close to Faida millitary camp.

In the district, there are some villages were inhabited by our brother the Arab, they lie to the eastern bank of river Tigris. The lands of the district are famous of growing winter season crops like wheat, barley, chick- peas, lentils, beans and others exploitirg Zetik plain and Semeal (Duban) plain beside summer season crops such as tomatoes, rice, onions, sun seed flowers and fruit fields like peaches, pears, apricots, pomegranates and apples getting benefit from the water of irrigation wells and from the water of springs spread all over the parts of the district. The most important mountains in the district are the great Dahkan and the little Dahkan. Alot of people from Azedeans Ethnic live with the Muslims in the district, also there are some christians in the area. Duhok Archaeology Office recorded (34) archaeological locations, they are: Badriya castle, Dostaka caves, the monastery of Mar Daniel and others. After the formation of Kurdistan Region Government, the governmental offices and NGOs became proactive to bring life to a number of villages which are under the control of the Kurdistan Region Government.

Selevani District

Its center was Assihe town and belonged to Zakho territory but it was destroyed in the year (1975) and the Kurdish citizens were displaced by force according to regulation of the council of Iraqi revolution leader-ship numbered (8591) in 10th of August, 1975 and had been settled in residential collective towns in the gorernrate except the territory center excusing that it lies on the international road. Then another regulation was issued by the above mentioned council numbered (648) in 20th of may, 1979including other parts from the district to be displaced and inhabited by the Arabic families who were safe in the area. Great sums of money were devoted to build the collective towns for the Arabic families and to destroy all the villages belong to the district, the following residential collective towns were built in Selevani plain to inbabit the Arabic.

1- Sarshow collective town (250)houses

2- Moquble collective town (200)houses

3- Bawarde collective town(200) houses

4- Batell callective town (350) houses

5- Avzerik collective town (200) houses

6- Khirabdem collective town (200) houses

7- Keliki collective town (167) houses

8- Basitke collective town (200) houses

9- Kirsheen collective town (200) houses

10-Bajid Kandal collective town (100) houses

Peshekhaber and Derabeen collective towns were abolished in excusing of security circumstances and the houses were neglected in them. The total of Arabic families settled in the district reached (2106) families, this was not enough, but another regulation was issued numbered (3162) in 10th of july, 1985 deciding to deliver agricultural lands to Arabic families in the area. The center of the district was changed to Batel enforced collective town in (1979) which lies on the international road Duhok- Zakho and was joined to Semeal territory.

The district lands are fertile, plain and suitable for agriculture specially the famous plain of Selevani which extends from Duban plain to pesheKhabir on Tigris river. Most of the people depend on winter agriculture like wheat, barley and others in addition to summer agriculture like tomatoes, and others with breeding the cattle. The district is considered to be the main sources of producing wheat and barley in the governorate and its lands are within the line of quaranteed rains beside they get benefit from the water of springs and wells spread all over the district for summer agriculture. The most important mountains in the district are the White and Bekher which form the northern border for the district with Rezgari district.

Many archaeological locations are found in the district. Duhok Archaeology Office recorded (34) locations spread on the southern feet of white and Bekher mountains and they are: Kewash castle, Assihe palace and Zaafaran city beside the locations in the plains like Basiteke remains and others.

Its area is about (811) sqkm and contains (83) villages all of them were destroyed in (1976) and the Kurdish citizens were displaced from the area in three stages (1975, 1977, 1979), its identity was changed into Arabic as we mentioned before and the Arabic families were inhabited in collective towns built specially for them.

After the holy uprising the Arab left the area and returned to their places and the original Kurdish citizens returned to the areas, after the formation of Kurdistan Region Government the hands of reconstruction and erection reached the villages of the district.

Zakho Territory

It is one of the important territories in the region and considered to be the gate of the region to the external world. Zakho city is the center of the territory which lies on the south- western side of the famous plain of Sendi with fertile soil, Zakho is a beautiful city characterized by a lot of water and nice climate, lies on Khabir river which passes by and a branch from the river divides the city into two parts and there is a stony bridge on it, almost was built in the reign of Badinan Emirate, then the branch meets with the main branch which passes by an ancient castle, in the castle, there are a bench of eight angles, columns above them sharp curves and decorations, they made the castle as house for their princes.

The historians have disagreed about its name and there are several stories or opinions about it, in some Arami sources the name of the city is mentioned which is derived from the Arami word (Zakhota) which means the victory in relationship with the battle happened between the Romans and the Persians near the city and ended with Romans victory.

In another story, the name is developed from the Kurdish words (Zey- Khowin) mean the river of the blood in relationship with the important accident happened in this place and the blood is shed, this story is near to the first one, it may refer to the battle between the Romans and the Persians. The third opinion says that the origin of the name came from (Zey) means the river and (Khowak) means the curved place which blocks the water and by all means the word Zakho is repeated widely in the Kurdish folklore songs (Zakhoka Badina).

The history of the city is accurately unknown, the prince (Jaladat Badirkhan) has mentioned that it was an important city in the reign of Kwiteens. It is certain that the Greek leader (Zeyzafon) passed by the city in (401 BC) when he pulled out his army and he mentioned the Kurdish citizens of the city when he returned home with his army.

It might be flourished and extended in the position where Husseinya city was situated and more than one Arabic sources mentioned it, they called Khabir river by (Husseinya) and still one of the sectors holds this name ( Husseinya).

The Kurdish historian (Sharaf Khan Badlissi) (1005 H) mentioned that it belonged to Badinan Emirate since the days of Sultan (Hassan Beck son of prince Sayf Deen) and appointed as the first prince to the city on their behalf in (892 H). One of the princes built a church for the jews in the city and still its remains are clear and in sight.

The people of Zakho depend on agriculture to earn their living specially the winter crops like wheat, barley, chick- peas, various types of peas and beans and different kinds of fruit trees by exploiting Sendi plain and other flat areas which can be benefited from them beside the summer crops like tomatoes, rice, tobacco, other types of vegetables. Zakho territory is well- known in growing trees such as populus, wal- nuts, pomegranates. The production rates are very high because of the fertility of lands and the availability of fresh water. The city was also considered to be the main source of making and exporting the folklore clothes (Shall and Shapik) but it started to shrink because of the shortage in the materials used in making the clothes and men shifted to wear clothes made of different types of cloth. The city is regarded as the gate of the region to the external world therefore it becomes an important commercial center and the majority of Zakho people work in trade and there are many trade companies in the city. Zakho city is full of historical remains, Duhok Archaeology Office listed (15) archaeological locations and they are:

1-Dalal bridge

This bridge is erected over Khabir river to the east of the city. There are different stories or opinions concerning its construction, (Hamarteen) says it is Roman, (Asskeef) says it is Greek and one of the leaders of the great Alexandar AL- Makadoni his name was (Slowkas) ordered to erect the bridge and some of the archaeologists in the Iraqi General Directorate of Archaeology think it might be erected by one of the Badinan Sultans but it is certain that the new bridge is erected on the remains of the ancient one. We think that one of the Badinan princes renovated it and repaired what was destroyed from the bridge. There is a famous epic in the from of a song in the Kurdish language about the construction of the bridge. The length of the bridge is about (114M), the width is about (4.70M) the height from the water surface is about (15.50M)it is erected by carved stones and consists of a wide and high curve in the middle and other smaller curves on the sides totally they are five curves. The walls are built by carved lime stones and they are put together in a beautiful and decorated way by using lime for plastering the walls. The history of Dalal bridge construction can not be identified because there are no signs, statues and writings on the bridge to show its erection date.

( Pera Dalal) is an ancient name called by Zakho people, in some sectors they call it (Pera Mazen) mean the great bridge. It has another name which is ( Aabassi bridge) it is a new one named at the thirtieths from this century by an official order from the Mayor of Zakho at that time, the archaeologist (Conrad Brouice) mentioned it and visited it in 15th of April, 1909 under name of Khabir bridge.

2-Zakho castle

It lies in the city center on the western of Khabir river and it is still in sight, it was the governing house in the reign of Badinan Emirate but the prince (Ali Khan 1205- 1212H) renovated and extended the castle. The castle was erected on the ruins of an older castle because the remained parts indicate that it was a strong and hard castle built by big pebble stones and coated with gypsum, still there is a huge tower erected by sequared stones still in sight.

3- Qubad Pasha castle

This castle situates in the cemetery of Zakho, it has a hexagon shape, six windows and a gate as an enterance. Eathenware and lime were used in building and plastering the castle with writings and pictures on it but they are removed at the present time.

4-Kesta remains

Kesta was an ancint city, its history belonged to the Assyrian periods, since Assyrian, Greek and Islamic coins and statues were found in this city. The late Shamdeen had written about Kesta remains in Ikha magazine in May, 1933 and about other archaeological locations. It is far from the governorate center in abour (58)km. The territory area is about (1378) sqkm and contains three districts, they are:

1-Rezgari district

The center is Ibraheem Khalil town, it is considered to be the main enterance of the region to the external world in which an international road passes by the town to Turkey.

The district center lies close to the meeting point of Heezal river to Khabir river where the international bridge passing by Turkey. The name of the town came from the village where the tomb of the father of the prophets (Ibraheem Khalil) is found. It is considered to be a tourism area in itself and a recreational ground or a general park specially for Zakho people and for the whole governorate.

The people depend on agriculture specially winter crops like wheat, barley, chick- peas, lentils, gram and others even in an insufficient way beside summer crops like tomatoes, rice and all kinds of vegetables also growing fruit fields, (lefi) area is famous in fruit fields specially in growing fruit trees like (Armishte) pomegranates, various types of grapes, peaches, apples and olives which are considered to be an ancient crop in the area by getting benefit from the water of Khabir river.

One of the most important mountains is the White mountain which extends from the south of Doski district towards the west and forms the southern border for the district, too. The international road passes by the district to Zakho city across (Geli Sepi) mean white narrow passage. The series which situates to the west of the road is called Dezhiwar (Bekher) mountain to the hills overlooking Peshekhabir river in the triangle border.There are many ancient remains and locations in the district, Duhok Archaeology Office listed (22) archaeological positions and they are:

1-Armishet castle 2-ruins of Derabeen and Peshekhabir 3-remains of Betas 4-ruins of Dornakh 5-remains of Ibraheem Khalil.

The district area is about (295)sqkm and contains (43) villages all of them were destroyed except the district center during Anfal operations, the western areas from the district lands were regarded to be non- person zones by excusing the passing of strategic oil line (tube) in them. After the fromation of Region Goverment, the life is returned to the villages and the hands of building and reconstruction reached the villages.

2-Sendi district

It lies to the north eastern of the territory center and it was forming with the neighbouring district Goli one district called (Goli and Sendi district), its center was (Berseve) village then detached in (1924) and the center remained there, after that changed to (Sharanish) village to centeralise Sendi area, finally changed to (Darkar) enforced collective town after the displacement and emigration campaigns carried out by Baath regime. The lands in the district can be divided into two areas disjoin them Zhigera mountain series, since the area which lies to the north of it, distinguished by having many mountains, heights and deep valleys with many springs and small rivers like the follwing tributaries:

1-Sharanish- Istablan- Bahnona Sendi- Heezal.

2-Garowk- Marsees- Barikh- Bahnona Sendi- Heezal.

The second area is Sendi plain with rich sources, Zakho city itself situates in southern side of this plain, a paved road passes in the middle of the plain which joins the territory center in addition to joining Goli district and Barwari Bala to Zakho city.

The majority of people work in agriculture of winter types such as wheat, barley, chick- peas, lentils and other crops by exploiting Sendi plain beside summer crops like tomatoes, rice, tobacco and others. The district is well- known in making fruit fields like apples, walnuts, pears, pomegranates and peaches it is also famous in growing populus, gallnuts and oaks.

The district has the fame of breeding the cattle, goats and sheep by getting advantage from fertile pasture lands and fine climate in summer. The northern areas of the district can be made nice and beautiful resorts since the temperature does not exceed more than (32)C, the mountains are covered by dense forests specially in Sharanish, Geli Sepi and Agha Sarket Sendia areas. The most important mountains in the distyict are Zheegera and Khamatoir.

The district is considered to be a store for archaeological positions which remove the cover of bright pages telling the story desceneded generations in this area, Duhok Archaeology Office recorded (48) ancient locations and they are:

1-Pera Rabanka (Peshock) 2-Pera Sheik Yousef 3-Sanat castles 4-Geli Barikh castles 5-Sulaman Sendi castle 6-Istablan caves and others.

The district areas is about (531) sqkm and contains (69) villages were destroyed before and during Anfal compaign, enforced collective town were built in Sendi plain to inbabit the displaced citizens of the villages such as (Darkar, Heezava, Bersive, Telkabar and Darhuzan village) collective towns, some of Barwari Bala citizens were inhabited in the collective town with the citizens of the district itself.

3-Goli district

The center is Batifa town which lies in the north- east of the territory center, it was forming one district with Sendi district but detached in (1924) under the name of Goli district. (Demka) village was made its center, then changed to (Bahnona) village and after that settled in (Batifa). It situates on the main road which joins Barwari Bala area to Zakho city. The meaning of (Goli) in Kurdish language is the curved plain area in which snow storms are blown there in winter.

The lands of the district can be divided into two areas, a plain area forms an extension to Sendi plain to Khabir river, the second area is a rough mountainous area, there are many deep valleys, mountainous heights with difficult paths in this area, also there are many rivers, brooks and springs which benefit in agriculture, people of the district depend on agriculture in winter season like wheat, barley, chick- peas, lentils, gram and others by extension to Sendi plain in addition to summer crops like rice, tomatoes and all types of vegetables, people shifted in the recent years to grow fruitful trees in growing crops like the fields of apples, peaches, pears, pomegranates, apricots and others. Its valleys are famous in growing populus trees beside types of grapes, walnuts and nuts by getting benefit from the water of Zeriza and Seerkotik small rivers also the utmost benefit from Khabir river. The people of the district breed the cattle by getting benefit from the existance of fertile pasture lands in the mountains since the climate is nice and water is available.

The most important mountains in the district are: Nizdor, Rawaysi, Kashan, Sarke Showini, Bahnona and Shabani.

The most important rivers in the district are: Zeriza, Seerkotik and Khabir.

There are many historical and ancient places in the district, Duhok Archaeology Office listed (15) locations and they are:

1-Shabani the famous castle 2-Kashan castle 3-Bekwane castle 4-Pera Nizdor on Khabir river, it might be erected in the reign of Badinan Emirate 5-the ruins of Kiret, Begova and others.

The district area is about (208) sqkm and contains (60) villages were destroyed before and during Anfal campaign except the district center and Begova enforced collective town but after the formation of Kurdistan Region Government, the hands of erection and reconstruction reached the villages and by bringing life to most of them.