Kurdish tribal revolt in northern Iraq led by Sheik Mahmud al-Barzinji, who declared himself king of Kurdistan. The uprising had a predominantly tribal character, but its leadership aimed at the creation of an independent Kurdish state, or at the very least an autonomous zone for Kurds. The revolt was not suppressed until July 1924.
Outbreak of a two-month revolt among the Kurds in northeastern Syria. The leaders of the movement were Kurdish separatists who demanded special legal status and political autonomy for Syrian Kurds.
Iraqi offensive against KURDISH REBELS in northern Iraq. The Kurds, represented by the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP), had demanded economic and cultural concessions from Baghdad (e.g., more investment in the north and official status for the Kurdish language). After repeated failures to reach a negotiated settlement, the government outlawed the KDP and sent troops to Kurdistan, where tribal rebels under MUSTAFA AL-BARZANI had declared a Kurdish state. A split appeared among Kurdish ranks after the formation of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (1964) by the former leaders of the KDP. Nevertheless, with the help of arms supplied from Iran, Barzani’s forces retained their position as the strongest Kurdish faction. Hostilities temporarily ended after the negotiation (1970) of limited autonomy, the recognition of Kurdish as an official language, and political concessions such as the appointment of a Kurdish vice president.
,1991 April 6
The U.S. and its allies established a safe haven for Kurds in northern Iraq.
The Iraqi Kurdish Front, allied with Turkey, staged an offensive against PKK forces (Kurdish rebels from Turkey) stationed in northern Iraq. The PKK retreated to Iranian territory
, March 20 1995
The Turkish military invaded Iraq in order to assault Kurds.
1995 5 July
Turkey sent approximately 3,000 troops to northern Iraq to continue this assault.
, Sept. 3–4 1995
The U.S. launched missile attacks on Iraqi military sites to counter Iraq’s recent moves against the Kurds in northern Iraq.
KURDS failed to create an independent state from the Kurdish areas of Iraq, Turkey, and Iran, although a short-lived Kurdish republic was created by the Soviet Union in northern Iran (1945–46) and an autonomous Kurdish region in northern Iraq received international protection after the Persian Gulf War of 1990–91.