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أخر تحديث: 19/01/2015  -  11:06:50 AM
الرئيسية
CHARGES AGAINST SADDAM HUSSEIN
CHARGES AGAINST SADDAM HUSSEIN
CNN

 Introduction

Saddam Hussein has been on trial since October 2005 on charges related to a series of detentions and executions in Dujail, Iraq, in 1982. In April, the Iraqi tribunal announced a second set of criminal charges related to a campaign against Kurds in northern Iraq in the 1980s

These charges form two of the 12 cases the Iraqi Special Tribunal has designated for possible trial

The other 10 are under investigation or awaiting investigation and may or may not come to trial.

Dujail

On July 8, 1982, a convoy carrying Saddam Hussein was attacked as it traveled through Dujail, a Shiite village north of Baghdad. The U.S. State Department says torture and extrajudicial killings followed the incident and that 550 men, women and children were arrested without warrants.

Saddam Hussein is being tried for crimes related to those incidents that include killing, torture, imprisoning people and forced expulsion.

Anfal campaign

The Anfal campaign was conducted from 1986 to 1988 to displace Kurds from territory in Iraq. Specifically between February and November 1988, the regime declared as off limits much of northern Iraq, primarily Kurdish territory, and pursued a policy of forced evictions, demolition of homes, and separation of men from their families, according to the U.S. State Department.

The men were executed, and many women and children died of malnourishment, lack of medical attention or a lack of resources, the State Department says. As many as 182,000 people reportedly disappeared

Halabja

The regime is alleged to have launched chemical attacks against more than 40 Kurdish villages between February and November 1988. One of them was the northern Iraqi town of Halabja, where, according to the U.S. State Department, 5,000 people were killed and thousands more injured in August 1988 when Iraqi warplanes attacked the town with bombs containing the nerve gases Sarin and VX.

Thousands of others died from long-term medical complications. Birth defects have been reported in children born to Halabja parents.

Repression of the Faylee Kurds

Thousands of Faylee Kurds, a minority Kurdish group, were either expelled to Iran or were persecuted and killed in northern Iraq in 1980, according to the U.S. State Department.

Note:( from the site Manager )
The Faylee Kurds, are one of the three major groups that make up the Kurdish people. They are one of the oldest groups in present-day Iraq - their origins can be traced back to the first civilizations in ancient Mesopotamia. They are currently mainly living outside of what is considered to be Iraqi Kurdistan today. They can predominantly be found in 3 of the major counties in Iraq, these are Diala, Baghdad and Wasit and some live in big cities such as Basra, O’Mara, Hila and Kufa.


The Kuwait invasion

Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990. The United Nations denounced the invasion the same day and imposed sanctions on Iraq four days later. On August 8, Iraq formally annexed Kuwait.

On August 25, 1990, the United Nations passed a resolution to allow enforcement of the embargo by military means. Nearly three months later, on November 29, 1990, it authorized the use of force after January 15, 1991, and the Gulf War began a day later.

The United Nations declared an end to the war on April 11, 1991.

Shiite uprising in the south

The regime allegedly massacred tens of thousand of soldiers and civilians in Shiite-dominated southern Iraq after coalition forces encouraged them to revolt following the 1991 Gulf War. The U.S. State Department says the crackdowns in the Hilla and Basra regions “were particularly brutal.”


Kurdish autonomy

The regime moved to crush an uprising by Kurds in the north following the end of the Gulf War in 1991. The U.S. State Department says many civilians and Kurdish soldiers were killed as they fought for autonomy. Once autonomy was declared, many Kurds living beneath a line denoting the northern no-fly zone, were killed, the State Department says. Mass graves were reportedly found in the Kirkuk region.



Uprising in Najaf

Students and other citizens demonstrated against the regime following the assassination of Grand Ayatollah Mohammed Sadiq al-Sadr and two of his sons in Najaf in 1999. The demonstrations were put down by the regime and many of the participants were arrested and allegedly tortured, according to the U.S. State Department.

Draining of the marshes

The regime drained the marshes in southern Iraq in the 1990s, forcing the Marsh Arabs, who had lived there for thousands of years, to leave because the land could no longer be cultivated, according to the U.S. State Department


Kurdish Barzani tribe

Iraqi security forces apparently arrested about 8,000 men of the Barzani clan in July 1983. The men have disappeared. The arrests were one of the preliminary charges announced in Baghdad in July 2004.


Killings of religious leaders

Dozens of Shiite religious leaders were arrested by the regime in July 1974 and five of them were allegedly executed. The killings were one of the preliminary charges announced in Baghdad in July 2004.


Killings of political activists

Iraqis who opposed the regime were systematically persecuted, tortured or killed over a period of 30 years, according to the U.S. State Department.

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